Layout and Power Estimation and Optimization at Microarchitecture and
Register Transfer Levels
Primary Investigator (PI)
Intel (2000-2004), SRC project id: 782/1008 (2000-2004)
RTL level power estimation:
At the Register Transfer Level, the estimation of
the maximum current in a power gated circuit must determine
the maximum of all possible power-up and normal switching current.
We developed a register transfer level leakage estimation considering
a rich cell library at ISPD'01 [C20],
and an IEE journal paper [J20],
We proposed a cluster-based ATPG algorithm to estimate
the maximum power-up current for combinational circuits.
Our method achieved substantial improvement over
simulation-based methods and also over the previously proposed
ATPG-based methods. Further, we also formulated the
sequential circuit maximum current problem as a combinational
ATPG problem, and solve it using the cluster-based
estimation algorithm. Experimental results showed that the
maximum power-up current for sequential circuits can be
up to 73% larger than the maximum normal switching current.
Supply voltage and temperature aware performance and power modeling:
Both performance and leakage depend on supply voltage and temperature, but
such dependency was not carefully modeled at the micro-architecture level.
We developed leakage power model with temperature dependence in
the context of microprocessors at ISLPED'03
We further incorporated such a model into micro-architecture simulation
to close the loop between supply voltage, clock rate, power and temperature.
We showed that ignoring inter-dependence between them may lead to thermal
runaway (i.e., temperature goes to the infinity) or temperature violation
in thermal management, and further quantified the benefits of advanced
cooling techniques. The results were also presented as an invited paper
at DAC'04 [C53]
and in TCAD [J17].
Micro-architecture and floorplanning co-optimization:
Micro-architecture and floorplanning have been optimized separately
under the assumption that interconnects have no pipelining and no
impact on system CPI (cycle-per-instruction). Our study in
[C38] on interconnect
power estimation considering concurrent repeater and flip-flop insertion
reduce the over-estimation of whole-chip interconnect power by up to 2.46X,
considering microarchitectural level structure interconnects such as global busses.
That study further revealed the performance impact of interconnect pipelining.
interconnect pipelining due to technology scaling, we studied floorplanning
optimization to minimize CPI for given micro-architecture configurations.
We proposed two algorithms, one based on access ratio without computing
CPI and the other based on a trajectory piecewise-linear (TPWL) model to
estimate CPI. Compared to the conventional floorplanning to minimize area
and wire length, our TPWL-based floorplanning can reduce CPI by up to 72.4%
with an area overhead less than 5.0%. Furthermore, we extended the TPWL CPI
model to consider micro-architecture changes and developed efficient
co-optimization of micro-architecture and floorplanning.
Our initial results were published in DAC'04
|| W. Liao and L. He, ``Power Modeling and Reduction of VLIW Processors,''
Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power
, edited by L. Benini, M. Kandemir and J. Ramanujam,
ISBN: 1-4020-7573-1, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
August 2003, Chapter 9, pp 155-172,
|| W. Liao and L. He, `` Coupled Power and Thermal Simulation with Active Cooling,''
Lecture Notes in Computer Science series,
Springer-Verlag Publisher, Volume 3164/2004, pp 148-163, 2004.
|| W. Liao, L. He and K. Lepak,
"Temperature and supply voltage aware performance and power modeling at microarchitecture level",
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 12 pages, July 2005.
|| F. Li, L. He, J. Basile, R. Patel and H. Ramamurthy,
"Leakage Current Aware High-Level Estimation for VLSI circuits",
accepted by IEE Proceeding on Computers & Digital Techniques, special issue for 2003 International Workshop on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation.
F. Li and L. He, "Maximum Current Estimation with Consideration
of Power Gating," IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Physical Design,
106-111, April 2001.
W. Liao and L. He,
"Ongoing Work on Power Modeling and Reduction for VLIW Processors," Workshop
on Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power, September 2001.
F. Li and L. He, "Estimation of Maximum Power-up Current,"
Asia South Pacific Design Automation Conference, January 2002. pp. 51-56
W. Liao, F. Li and L. He, "Microarchitecture Level Power and Thermal Simulation
Considering Temperature Dependent Leakage Model," in Proceedings
of International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, pages 211-216, August. 2003.
W. Liao and L. He, "Full-chip Interconnect Power Estimation and Simulation
Considering Concurrent Repeater and Flip-flop Insertion,"
Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Aided Design, pages: 574-580, November 2003. (pdf)
W. Liao and L. He, "Coupled Power and Thermal Simulation and Its Application", in the 3rd Workshop
on Power-Aware Computer Systems, in conjunction with the 36th Annual International Symposium
on Microarchitecture, December 2003. (pdf)
C. Long, L. Simonson, W. Liao and L. He,
"Floorplanning Optimization with Trajectory Piecewise-Linear Model for Pipelined Interconnects",
IEEE/ACM Design Automation Conference, pp. 640-645, June 2004. (pdf)
L. He, W. Liao and M. Stan,
"System Level Leakage Reduction Considering Leakage and Thermal Interdependency",
IEEE/ACM Design Automation Conference, pp. 12 - 17, June 2004. (pdf) (Invited paper)